Constantine I & Hillel II: Two Men
Who Deceived the Whole World.
Constantine I & Hillel II: Two Men
Who Deceived the Whole World.
There are those who vehemently insist that there has been an
unbroken chain of consecutive seven-day weeks since creation,
and that 'Saturday' is the Seventh-Day. But does Scripture,
history, and archaeology agree with this unfounded 'theory'?
In the fourth century C.E., the ancient lunar Scriptural Sabbath of the CREATOR's Biblical calendar, was supplanted by 'Saturday' through a change in calendars. From that point on, the true Seventh-Day Sabbath of Scripture was lost. Moreover, this was foretold long ago by the prophet Daniel, in the first year of Belshazzar [550 B.C.], King of Babylon:
(Daniel 7:25) (KJV) And he shall speak great words against the most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time.
2 Men [Constantine + Hillel] ÷ 2 Agendas = 1 Massive Deception.
One of the greatest frauds in the history of the world was perpetrated almost 1,700 years ago by the actions of two men. The Roman emperor Constantine, committed a portentous act: he unified his empire by promoting 'Sunday' as the day of "christ's" resurrection and outlawed the use of the True Biblical calendar for calculating Passover. This set in motion a series of reactions. Jewish leader Hillel II responded to the persecution following this legislation by making a modification to the True Biblical luni-solar calendar. This supplanted The True Scriptural Seventh-Day Sabbath*, with the pagan 'Saturday'. It was a chain of actions and reactions of epic proportions. The ramifications continue to this day with every Christian and Jew that worships by following the Gregorian or Jewish calendars.
*For more on this topic, see the article: "The Lunar Calendar Of The Scriptural Sabbath".
Roman Emperor Constantine 1st.
The fourth century was a vast sea change in the tumultuous ocean current of history. Christianity, a paganized form of Jewish Phariseeism, almost single-handedly created by the pauline sect of judaism, by the self-appointed false apostle paul, who himself claimed to be a Pharisee (Acts 23:6), was gaining an ever-larger presence in the Roman Empire, while paganism remained the dominating influence. The time was ripe for someone with the power and initiative to take advantage of a unique time in history.
St. Constantine the Great (c. 272 - 337 C.E.) is widely viewed as the first "Christian" emperor of the Roman Empire. The reality is he was, first and foremost, a pagan. He allowed himself to be baptized shortly before his death, but he retained his position as head of the state religion and carried its title, Pontifex Maximus, until his death. Even Catholics admit Constantine retained the office of pontifex maximus after his so-called conversion.
Constantine was also a brilliant strategist with a political agenda. He wanted to unite the two most influential factions in his empire: pagans and Christians. Jews were a despised minority whose influence was to be contained and marginalized. Thus, Constantine's efforts to unite his empire focused on finding a common ground to unite the pagans and western paganized Christians. He found this in 'Sunday', of the pagan planetary week.
The early Julian calendar, like that of the Roman Republic before it, had an eight-day week. The letters A through H represented the days of the week. At that time, different countries used different means of keeping track of time and within the Roman Empire itself, there were regional differences in the Julian calendar. The pagan seven-day planetary week came to Rome in the first century BC.
Despite the emergence of the planetary week, the early Julian calendar continued to use an eight-day week for some time. The nundinal [eight-day] cycle was eventually replaced by the modern seven-day week, which first came into use in Italy during the early imperial period, after the Julian calendar had come into effect in 45 BC. The system of nundinal letters was also adapted for the [seven-day] week. For a while, the week and the nundinal cycle coexisted, but by the time the week was officially adopted by Constantine in AD 321, the nundinal cycle had fallen out of use." While the pagan planetary week of seven days was known by the Romans and used regionally, the Julian calendar in use during and immediately following the life of 'christ', still used an eight-day week.
This fact is supported by archeological evidence: the Julian fasti still in existence today show either eight-day weeks or list both eight-day and seven-day weeks on the same calendar.
The decline of the eight-day week coincided with the expansion of Rome. The astrological [planetary] and Christian seven-day weeks that had just been introduced into Rome were also becoming increasingly popular. There is evidence indicating that the Roman eight-day week and those two seven-day cycles were used simultaneously for some time. However, the coexistence of two weekly rhythms that were entirely out of phase with one another obviously could not be sustained for long. One of them clearly had to give way. As we all know, it was the eight-day week that soon disappeared from the pages of history forever.
This was not an immediate transformation. As the seven-day planetary week became more popular, the use of the letters (A through G) to designate days was laid aside and the days of the week were named after the planetary 'gods'.
It is not to be doubted that the diffusion of the Iranian [Persian] mysteries has had a considerable part in the general adoption by the pagans, of the week with the 'Sunday' as a holy day. The names which we employ unawares for the other six days, came into use at the same time that 'Mithraism' won its followers in the provinces in the West, and one is not rash in establishing a relation of coincidence between its triumph and that concomitant phenomenon.
Archeological evidence shows Christians double dating their sepulcher inscriptions, giving both the solar Julian date and the corresponding date on the luni-solar Biblical calendar. One such inscription, dated Friday, November 5, 269 AD. states: "In the consulship of Claudius and Paternus, on the Nones of November, on the day of 'Venus', and on the 24th day of the lunar month, Leuces placed [this memorial] to her very dear daughter Severa, and to Thy Holy Spirit. She died [at the age] of 55 years, and 11 months, [and] 10 days."
This stick calendar from the Baths of Titus, (circa 79 - 81 C.E.) shows 'Saturn' holding his sickle, as 'god' of the first day of the week (Saturday). The sun 'god' is next (Sunday), followed by the moon 'goddess' (Monday) on the third day of the week.
This was the situation Constantine took advantage of for furthering his political agenda. It was a delicate balancing act that favored the pagan faction more than the Christian. First, he enacted a series of laws that honored the day of the Sun, dies Solis, or 'Sunday'. On the original planetary week, 'Saturday' had actually been the first day of the week. 'Sunday' was the second day of the week and 'Friday' was the seventh day.
The sun however, was Constantine's personal symbol. He had Sol Invictus (Unconquered Sun) inscribed on his coins and it remained his personal motto all his life. Exalting 'Sunday' was acceptable to pagans and something on which some Christians had already compromised. By the second century, many Christians (particularly in the west) had already come to revere 'Sunday' as the day of the false so-called "saviour's" resurrection. This was the opening Constantine needed for uniting paganism and Christianity.
The 'Sunday' law of Constantine must not be overrated. He enjoined the observance, or rather forbade the public desecration of Sunday, not under the name of Sabbatum [Sabbath] or dies Domini, the so-called [Lord's day], but under its old astrological and heathen title 'dies Solis' [Sunday], familiar to all his subjects, so that the law was as applicable to the worshipers of 'Hercules', 'Apollo', and 'Mithras', as to the Christians. There is no reference whatever in his law either to the fourth commandment or to the resurrection of self-appointed, so-called 'christ'.
Constantine is viewed as a Christian because of his 'Sunday' law, but his "Sunday law" was deliberately ambiguous. He wanted it to be acceptable to both pagans and Christians!
How such a law would further the designs of Constantine it is not difficult to discover. It would confer a special honor upon the festival of the Christian church, and it would grant a slight boon to the pagans themselves. In fact there is nothing in this edict which might not have been written by a pagan. The law does honor to the pagan deity whom Constantine had adopted as his special patron 'god', 'Apollo' or the Sun. The very name of the day lent itself to this ambiguity. The term 'Sunday' (dies Solis) was in use among Christians as well as pagans.
The seven-day planetary week was the vehicle for change. Both the eight-day Julian week, and the Seventh-Day Scriptural lunar Sabbath, were laid aside for the planetary week of 'Mithraism'. This week came from paganism, not the Bible, as Christians today assume. The time was ripe for a reconciliation of state and church, each of which, needed the other. It was a stroke of genius for Constantine to realize this, and act upon it. He offered peace to the church, provided that she would recognize the state and support its imperial power.
Constantine's 'Sunday' law did reconcile pagans and many of the Christians. However, it also served to bring to the forefront a controversy that had already raged for over 100 years: when to celebrate the self-proclaimed, so-called "saviour's"
suicide* sacrifice. Up until this time, many Christians especially in the east, were still worshipping on the True Scriptural Seventh-Day Sabbath as well as keeping the ETERNAL's annual feasts, calculated by the True Biblical luni-solar calendar. Even many who had embraced worship on 'Sunday' still used the True Biblical calendar for calculating Passover. It was a longstanding debate involving two different calendars.
*For more on this topic, see the article: "Is Blood Required To Atone For Sin"?
'Easter': The Catholic's Pagan Passover.
Since the second century AD., there had been a divergence of opinion about the date for celebrating the paschal ('Easter') anniversary of the Lord's passion (death, burial, and resurrection). The most ancient practice appears to have been to observe the fourteenth (the Passover date), fifteenth, and sixteenth days of the lunar month regardless of the day of the [Julian] week these dates might fall on from year to year. The bishops of Rome, desirous of enhancing the observance of 'Sunday' as a church festival, ruled that the annual celebration should always be held on the 'Friday', 'Saturday', and 'Sunday' following the fourteenth day of the lunar month. In Rome, 'Friday' and 'Saturday' of 'Easter' were fast days, and on 'Sunday' the fast was broken by partaking of the communion. This controversy lasted almost two centuries until Constantine intervened in behalf of the Roman bishops, and outlawed the passover group.
A statement by Eusebius of Caesarea reveals that the churches of Asia had long clung to observing Passover on Abib 14, while the churches in the west had transitioned to the pagan 'Easter Sunday'.
A question of no small importance arose at that time [late second century], for the parishes of all Asia, as the older tradition held that the fourteenth day of the moon, on which day the Jews were commanded to sacrifice the lamb, should be observed as the feast of the self-proclaimed, so-called "saviour's" Passover. It was therefore necessary to end their fast on that day, whatever day of the [Julian] week it should happen to be. But it was not the custom of the churches in the rest of the world to end it at this time.
The continuous weekly cycle of the Julian calendar meant that the Biblical Passover on Abib 14 could fall on any day of the Julian week. Consequently Abib 16, the day of the so-called resurrection, did not always fall on a 'Sunday'. Those pressing for the pagan 'Easter' celebration on the Julian calendar drew up a decree proclaiming that, all Christians should observe the so-called resurrection on 'Easter Sunday', rather than the Scriptural Passover on Abib 14. Thus the observation of a pagan holiday honoring "christ's" so-called resurrection, supplanted the ETERNAL's Scriptural feast commemorating passover.
Synods and assemblies of bishops were held on this account, and all with one consent, through mutual correspondence drew up an ecclesiastical decree, that the mystery of the so-called resurrection of the 'Lord' [a pagan title for the false 'god baal'], should be celebrated on no other but the "lord's day" [Sunday], and that we should observe the close of the paschal fast on this day only.
Those still clinging to True Scriptural Biblical calendation immediately protested this highhanded decree of the western bishops. In a letter sent to Victor, Bishop of Rome, Polycrates declared his firm belief in continuing to use the True Biblical calendar for observation of Passover. His letter is of particular importance to Christians today because it lists John the Beloved and the Apostle Phillip as keeping the Passover!
Eusebius relates: But the bishops of Asia led by Polycrates, decided to hold to the old custom handed down to them. He himself, in a letter which he addressed to Victor and the church of Rome, set forth in the following words, the tradition which had come down to him:
We observe the exact day; neither adding, nor taking away. For in Asia also great lights have fallen asleep, which shall rise again on the day of the "Lord's" coming when he shall come with glory from heaven, and shall seek out all the saints. Among these are Philip, one of the twelve apostles, and John, who was both a witness and a teacher, who reclined upon the bosom of the 'Lord', and fell asleep [died] at Ephesus. And Polycarp in Smyrna, who was a bishop and martyr. All these observed the fourteenth day of the passover according to the Gospel, deviating in no respect, but following the rule of faith.
If the believers in Asia were refusing to give up the True Biblical calendar for calculating Passover, it is probable that they had likewise refused to forsake the True Scriptural Seventh-Day Sabbath calculated by the same calendar. The Bishop of Rome "immediately attempted to cut off from the common unity the parishes of all Asia, with the churches that agreed with them as heterodox; and he wrote letters and declared all the brethren there wholly excommunicate.
It is of import to note that there was never any argument over when the resurrection actually occurred. Both acknowledged that it occurred on Abib 16 of the luni-solar calendar. The disagreement, as noted in the quote above, was over when to celebrate it. Dates are established by calendars, so ultimately, it was an argument over which calendar would be used to determine the celebration. In order to truly unify Christians and pagans alike, the observance of the crucifixion and resurrection had to be transferred from the True Biblical luni-solar calendar, to the pagan Julian solar calendar. Four years after the decrees exalting 'Sunday' in 321 C.E., Constantine convened the Council of Nicaea in 325 to settle this debate.
No longer would the self-proclaimed, false "saviour's"
suicide* sacrifice, be observed on the 14th, 15th and 16th days of Abib on the True Scriptural Biblical luni-solar calendar. In the future, such remembrances would be transferred to 'Friday', 'Saturday' and 'Easter Sunday' on the Julian calendar, which can drift from March 20-22 to April 22-25. The bishop of Rome himself, desirous of greater power and influence, threw the weight of his influence in with Constantine. By the time of Constantine, apostasy in the church was ready for the aid of a friendly civil ruler to supply the needed force of coercion.
*For more on this topic, see the article: "Is Blood Required To Atone For Sin"?
Constantine was emphatic that Jewish calendation,
should no longer be used for calculating these dates.
At the Council of Nice [Nicea], the last thread was snapped, which connected Christianity to the Hebrew Scriptures. The man-made festival of 'Easter', had up till now been celebrated for the most part at the same time as the True Scriptural Biblical Passover, and indeed upon the days calculated and fixed by the Synhedrion [Sanhedrin] in Judea for its celebration; but in future its observance was to be rendered altogether independent of the True Scriptural Biblical lunar-solar calendar; "For it is unbecoming beyond measure that on this holiest of festivals [pagan 'Easter'], we should follow the customs of the Jews. Henceforward let us have nothing in common with this odious people; our [self-proclaimed pagan] 'Saviour' has shown us another path. It would indeed be absurd if the Jews were able to boast, that we are not in a position to celebrate the Passover without the aid of their rules (calculations)". These remarks are attributed to the Emperor Constantine [and became] the guiding principle of the Church which was now to decide the fate of the Jews.
Constantine accomplished three things, the ripple effects of which, resound to this day:
1. Standardized the planetary week of seven days making 'dies Solis' (Sunday) the first day of the week, with 'dies Saturni' (Saturday) the last day of the week.
2. Exalted 'Easter' and guaranteed that the true Passover and the pagan 'Easter' would never fall on the same day.
3. Exalted 'dies Solis' (Sunday), as the day of worship for both pagans and Christians.
The long-term effect was that 'Easter Sunday' entered the Christian paradigm as The Day of "christ's" resurrection. The corollary to this realignment of time, was that the day preceding pagan 'Easter Sunday', 'Saturday', became from that day forward the False Bible Sabbath of the Jews. This is the true significance of Constantine's 'Sunday law', and it laid the foundation for the modern assumption that a continuous weekly cycle has always existed.
The result of Constantine's actions actually favored the pagan faction of the empire. However, the corrupt bishops of Rome were able to present these actions as favorable to Christians. "By the time of Constantine, apostasy in the church was ready for the aid of a friendly civil ruler to supply the necessary force of coercion." Subsequently, the CREATOR's true Scriptural luni-solar calendar, handed down from Creation and again by Moses was lost.
Moreover, the result of Constantine's ecumenism was swiftly felt. All who refused to give up the use of the True Biblical luni-solar calendar for calculating Passover, felt the heavy hand of oppression fall on them. Constantine's son Constantius, took his father's act one step further and outlawed the use of the True Scriptural Biblical luni-solar calendar for Jews as well. Historian David Sidersky observed: "It was no more possible under Constance to apply the old calendar."
In subsequent years, the Jews went through "iron and fire." The Christian emperors forbade the Jewish computation of the calendar, and did not allow the announcement of the feast days. Graetz says, "The Jewish communities were left in utter doubt concerning the most important religious decisions: as pertaining to their festivals." The immediate consequence was the fixation and decree of the Jewish calendar by Hillel II.
Constantius' act impacted apostolic Christians as well. While Tertullian reveals paganized Christians were already transferring their worship to the 'day of the Sun' as early as the second century, others clung to the CREATOR's Scriptural Biblical luni-solar calendar, to determine the True Scriptural 'Seventh-Day Sabbath' for over 1,000 years. Almost 40 years after the Council of Nicaea, the Council of Laodicea (c. 363-364) released a statement demanding that Christians work on the 'Saturday' Sabbath, and abstain from work on the so-called "Lord's day" ['Sunday']. This decree, translated into English, states:
Christians shall not Judaize and be idle on 'Saturday'*, but shall work on that day; but the "Lord's day" they shall especially honor, and, as being Christians, shall, if possible, do no work on that day. If however, they are found Judaizing, they shall be shut out from 'christ'.
*According to Roman Catholic bishop and scholar, Karl Josef von Hefele (1809-1893), the use of the word 'Saturday' in the above quote is incorrect. In the original shown here, the word used was Sabbath or Sabbato not 'dies Saturni' or 'Saturday':
Quod non oportet Christianos Judaizere et otiare in Sabbato, sed operari in eodem die. Preferentes autem in veneratione Dominicum diem si vacre voluerint, ut Christiani hoc faciat; quod si reperti fuerint Judaizere Anathema sint a 'christo'.
Christians at the time of the calendar change were not confused over 'Saturday' being the Sabbath. Everyone knew that 'dies Saturni' had recently been moved from the first day of the pagan planetary week, to the last day, while Sabbato was the seventh day of the Jewish [Hebrew] Scriptural Biblical luni-solar calendar, with which no one in power wished to be associated. Again, these were two different days on two distinct calendar systems.
The political power of Rome lent support to the religious decrees of Constantine and Constantius. While some scholars have mistakenly assumed that the conflict was over 'Saturday' versus Sunday, the historical reality reveals that people of the time were well aware of the existence of the True Biblical luni-solar calendar and how to use it. Many believers in the east or beyond the reaches of the Roman Empire were loathe to abandon Biblical time-keeping. Those Christians who were looking for a way out of their difficulty with Sabbath observance moved towards a greater regard for the first day of the [Julian] week. But others on the outskirts of the Empire, where anti-Semitism did not exist, continued their veneration of the Scriptural Seventh-Day Sabbath.
Just as Constantine was the power behind an action that ultimately led to the destruction of the True Biblical calendar for use by Christians, another man, a Jew, was responsible for a reaction that had consequences just as far reaching.
Prior to the destruction of Jerusalem, the High Priest had been in charge of the calendar. "While the Sanhedrin (Rabbinical Supreme Court) presided in Jerusalem, there was no set calendar. They would evaluate every year to determine whether it should be declared a leap year." This task fell to the president of the Sanhedrin when the priesthood was no more. "Under the reign of Constantius (337-362) the persecutions of the Jews reached such a height that, the computation of the calendar [was] forbidden under pain of severe punishment." It was as a reaction to this situation that Hillel II, President of the Sanhedrin, took the extraordinary step in 359 C.E. of modifying the ancient Biblical calendar to allow the Jews to more easily coexist with the Christians.
After Hillel II.
Distant communities would no longer have to wait for messengers from the President of the Sandedrin to reach them to know when a new month had started. Each community would henceforth be able to determine for themselves when a new month began and when a 13th month was to be added.
The "Fixed" Calendar.
When Hillel II "fixed" the calendar, he incorporated leap years on a permanent basis. It is possible, but not provable, that this particular cycle of leap years was used and understood prior to Hillel as it follows the 19-year metonic cycle. Hillel based his calendar "on mathematical and astronomical calculations [rather than observations]. This calendar, still in use, standardized the length of months and the addition of months over the course of a 19 year cycle, so that the lunar calendar realigns with the solar years." He declared a thirteenth month to be intercalated in the 3rd, 6th, 8th, 11th, 14th, 17th, and the 19th years of the 19-year cycle.
But Hillel did more than just make known a 19-year cycle of intercalations. He also transferred the observance of the ancient 'Seventh-Day Sabbath' from the 8th, 15th, 22nd and 29th days of the lunar month, to every 'Saturday' of the Julian months. This change necessitated still another: rules of postponement. Changing the Scriptural 'Seventh-Day Sabbath' from the luni-solar calendar to 'Saturday', is clearly implied by the need for rules of postponement which, prior to Hillel's "fixing" of the calendar, had been unnecessary. According to the Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, "The New Moon is still, and the Sabbath originally was, dependent upon the lunar cycle." When both the Sabbath and the annual feasts are calculated on the Scriptural luni-solar calendar, rules of postponement are unnecessary. It is only when the yearly feasts are calculated by one calendar, and the weekly Sabbath is calculated by another, that there are conflicts requiring rules of postponement.
Without the rules of postponement, the annual feasts come into conflict with 'Saturday'. For example, if the Feast of Trumpets [New Moon for the seventh month], were to fall on a 'Sunday', the last day of Feast of Tabernacles would fall on a 'Saturday', conflicting with the traditional observance for the last day of the feast. Hence the need for the first and second rules of postponement. The third rule of postponement insures that the common year in question would not be longer than 355 days. The fourth rule of postponement guarantees that a common year following a leap year is not shorter than 383 days.
This "Fixed" Calendar Is Highly Regimented.
There are exactly fourteen different patterns that the Jewish calendar years may take, distinguished by the length of the year and the day of the week on which Rosh Hashanah falls. Because the rules are complex, a pattern can repeat itself several times in the course of a few years, and then not recur again for a long time. But the Jewish calendar is known to be extremely accurate. It does not "lose" or "gain" time as some other calendars do.
This was an act of survival by Hillel II. It was made in response to the brutal persecutions of Constantine's son, Constantius.
With his own hand the Patriarch destroyed the last bond which united the communities dispersed throughout the Roman and Persian empires with the Patriarchate. He was more concerned for the certainty of the continuance of Judaism than for the dignity of his own house, and therefore abandoned those functions for which his ancestors had been so jealous and solicitous. The members of the Synhedrion favored this innovation. When Hillel II "fixed" the calendar, he, in his position as President of the Sanhedrin, effectually gave permission to the Jews to worship on 'Saturday' for all future time. Today, nearly 1700 years later, the action of Constantine and its resulting reaction by Hillel II, are still impacting hundreds of millions of people around the world.
The Epic Results Of The Unauthorized Decrees On
The CREATOR's Calendar By Constantine & Hillel:
• Catholics worship on 'Sunday' in honor of the resurrection. This is in accordance with the act of Constantine which changed the observance from the Scriptural luni-solar calculated Passover, to the solar calculated pagan 'Easter'.
• Jews worship on 'Saturday' because Talmudic law justifies the act of keeping one day in seven when one does not know when the true Sabbath falls. It ignores the Scriptural Biblical luni-solar calendar law of the Torah, in favor of the oral laws and traditions of the Talmud.
• Most Protestants join with Catholics in worshipping on 'Sunday', the first day of the modern Gregorian week, assuming it is the day of the resurrection.
• 'Saturday' sabbath-keeping Protestants worship on 'Saturday' because it is the seventh-day of the modern week, and they assume that since the Jews worship on 'Saturday', it must be the Biblical Sabbath.
• Muslims, likewise, honor the pagan/papal Gregorian method of calendation by going to mosque for prayers on 'Friday'.
It is not possible to find the true Seventh-Day Sabbath using the modern Gregorian calendar. This solar calendar is nothing more than a man-made pagan method of time calculation. The early Julian calendar was established by pagans, for pagans. It was officially adopted for ecclesiastical use at the Council of Nicaea. It was later adjusted by Jesuit astronomer Christopher Clavius, at the behest of Pope Gregory XIII - hence the name 'Gregorian' calendar. Clavius confirmed that the Julian calendar [and thus the Gregorian calendar that comes from it], is founded on paganism, and has no connection whatsoever to the True Scriptural Biblical luni-solar calendar.
In his explanation of the Gregorian calendar, Clavius admitted that when the Julian calendar was accepted as the ecclesiastical calendar by the Church, the True Scriptural Biblical luni-solar calendar was rejected: "The Catholic Church has never used that [Jewish] rite of celebrating the Passover, but always in its celebration has observed the motion of the moon and sun, and it was thus sanctified by the most ancient and most holy Pontiffs of Rome, but also confirmed by the first Council of Nicaea." The "most ancient and most holy Pontiffs of Rome" here spoken of refer to the pagan College of Pontiffs of which Constantine, as Pontifex Maximus, was the head.
Constantine desired unity. He achieved this goal through outlawing the use of the True Scriptural Biblical luni-solar calendar for remembering the
suicide death of 'christ'*. Hillel II desired the physical survival of Judaism. He achieved his goal by compromising with paganism and modifying the True Scriptural Biblical luni-solar calendar, on his own initiative without the ETERNAL's authorization. The result of this action and it's accompanying reaction has been the assumption by multitudes that 'Saturday' is the Biblical Sabbath and 'Sunday' is the day on which the self-proclaimed, false 'saviour' was resurrected. Thus, Christians and Jews have calculated their worship days using man-made pagan solar calendation, neglecting the True 'Seventh-Day Sabbath' of the Scriptural Biblical luni-solar calendar.
None who desire to worship the Creator on His holy 'Seventh-Day Sabbath' will calculate their worship days by this abomination of desolation that dishonors the ETERNAL CREATOR, and SOVEREIGN of the universe. Only the Scriptural luni-solar calendar of Creation can pinpoint when the true Sabbath occurs. Lay aside the traditions of man. Accept only the word of the Almighty CREATOR, and worship Him by His ONLY ordained method of time-keeping.
 [a]All scriptural links point to the Bible Gateway, A Searchable Online Bible In Over 100 Versions And 50 Languages, located at "BibleGateway.Com", a vast biblical resource containing all the major texts and reference materials useful for in-depth bible studies. Most scriptual quotations are from the (KJV) of the Bible, however versions noted in (parentheses) should also be consulted. [b]All Strong's scriptural references point to the Blue Letter Bible Lexicon, located at "BlueLetterBible.Org", another vast biblical resource which has over 4,000,000 links available, pointing to more than 165,000 pages of concordances, lexicons, dictionaries, commentaries, images, and several Bible versions.
 This title, now claimed by the pope, comes from ancient Rome. The Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the College of Pontiffs of the pagan Roman religion. It was both a religious as well as a political office.
 New Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 4, pp. 179-181. Various inscriptions as recorded in Corpus Inseriptionum Latinarum, 1863 ed., Vol. 2, p. 58, #481; "Constantine I", New Standard Encyclopedia, Vol. 5. See also Christopher B. Coleman, Constantine the Great and Christianity, p. 46.
 See Robert L. Odom, 'Sunday' in Roman Paganism, "The Planetary Week in the First Century B.C."
 P. Brind'Amour, Le Calendrier romain: Recherches chronologiques, 256-275.
 Eviatar Zerubavel, The Seven-day Circle, p. 46, emphasis supplied.
 Franz Cumont, Textes et Monumnets Figures Relatifs aux Mysteres de Mithra, Vol. I, p. 112, emphasis supplied.
 E. Diehl, Inscriptiones Latinae Christianae Veteres, Vol. 2, p. 193, No. 3391. See also J. B. de Rossi, Inscriptiones Christianac Urbis Romae, Vol. 1, part 1, p. 18, No. 11. J. B. de Rossi,
 Philip Schaff, History of the Christian Church, Vol. III, p. 380, emphasis supplied.
 By this time, the paganized Christians in the west had long been venerating 'Sunday' as the day of "christ's" resurrection.
 J. Westbury-Jones, Roman and Christian Imperialism, p. 210, emphasis supplied.
 Michael I. Rostovtzeff, The Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire, p. 456.
 Odom, op. cit., p. 188, emphasis supplied.
 Eusebius, Church History, Book V, Chapter 23, v. 1, emphasis supplied.
 Ibid., v. 2.
 Ibid., Chapter 24, v. 1-4, 6, emphasis supplied.
 Ibid., v. 9.
 Michael I. Rostovtzeff, The Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire, p. 456.
 Heinrich Graetz, History of the Jews, (Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1893), Vol. II, pp. 563-564, emphasis supplied.
 eLaine Vornholt & Laura Lee Vornholt-Jones, Calendar Fraud, "Biblical Calendar Outlawed," emphasis supplied.
 Rostovtzeff, op. cit., p. 456.
 David Sidersky, Astronomical Origin of Jewish Chronology, p. 651, emphasis supplied.
 Grace Amadon, "Report of Committee on Historical Basis, Involvement, and Validity of the October 22, 1844, Position", Part V, Sec. B, pp. 17-18, Box 7, Folder 1, Grace Amadon Collection, (Collection 154), Center for Adventist Research, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, Michigan.
 Tertullian, Apologia, chap. 16, in J. P. Migne, Patrologie Latine, Vol. 1, cols. 369-372; standard English translation in Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 3, p. 31.
 Vornholt, op. cit., "Changing the Calendar: Papal Sign of Authority."
 Leslie Hardinge, Ph.D., The Celtic Church in Britain, p. 76. Christians in Scotland continued to calculate Passover by the True Biblical calendar until they got a Roman Catholic queen in the eleventh century.
 Excerpted from The Jewish Encyclopedia, http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/3920-calendar-history-of, "Calendar, History of", emphasis supplied.
 Judaism 101, "Jewish Calendar," www.jewfaq.org
 Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, "Holidays," p. 410.
 Graetz, op. cit., Vol. II, p. 573.
 'Easter' is a moveable feast, which means that it does not occur on the same date every year. How is the date of 'Easter' calculated? The Council of Nicaea (A.D. 325) set the date of 'Easter' as the 'Sunday' following the paschal full moon, which is the full moon that falls on or after the vernal (spring) equinox. (http://catholicism.about.com/od/holydaysandholidays/f/Calculate_Date.htm)
 Christopher Clavius, Romani Calendarii A Gregorio XIII P.M. Restituti Explicato, p. 54.