Continuous Weekly Cycle Proven False.
Continuous Weekly Cycle Proven False.
A Continuous Weekly Cycle Since Creation, Is Proven False.
Saturday, Could Not Possibly Be, The Seventh-Day Sabbath.
Since When Does Removing
Ten Days Equal A 'WEEK'?
Modern Sabbatarians insist that Saturday is the Sabbath of the Bible because they believe that the seven-day 'WEEK' has cycled without interruption ever since Creation. One reason for this belief is the fact that when the Julian calendar changed to the Gregorian calendar in 1582, no days of the 'WEEK' were lost. Thursday, October 4 on the Julian calendar, was followed by Friday October 15 on the new Gregorian calendar, by removing ten days. Therefore it is claimed, because no days were "lost" when the calendars transitioned from Julian to Gregorian, the modern 'WEEK' is identical to the Biblical 'WEEK'. However, nothing could be further from the truth.
First of all, this argument is a red herring. On the one hand they would have you believe that because 'Thursday' was followed by 'Friday' the 'WEEK' stayed the same. This is not only ludicrous, it's a complete lie. Everybody knows a so-called 'WEEK' consists of seven days. So how can removing ten days, equal a 'WEEK'? What happened to the other three days? I'm sorry, I guess they just want us to shut up, and stop asking questions.
Secondly, this assumption is proven false by the historical facts of the Julian calendar itself. The calendar of the Roman Republic, like all ancient calendars, was originally based on lunar cycles. Pagan Roman priests, called pontiffs, controlled the calendar by announcing the beginning of months.
The Bust Of
These pontiffs, who could also hold political office, shamelessly manipulated the calendar for political reasons, intercalating extra months to keep favorite politicians in office longer or, conversely, leaving needed intercalations out in order to shorten the terms of political opponents. By the time of Julius Caesar, the dates of the calendar were completely out of alignment with the seasons. Julius Caesar exercised his right as pontifex maximus (high priest), and reformed what had become a cumbersome and inaccurate accounting of time.
In the mid-1st century B.C. Julius Caesar invited Sosigenes, an Alexandrian astronomer, to advise him about the reform of the calendar, and Sosigenes decided that the only practical step was to abandon the lunar calendar altogether. Months must be arranged on a seasonal basis, and a tropical (solar) year used, as in the Egyptian calendar. Notice that Sosigenes' big innovation was an abandonment of lunar calendation.
The great difficulty facing any [calendar] reformer was that there seemed to be no way of effecting a change that would still allow the months to remain in step with the phases of the Moon and the year with the seasons. It was necessary to make a fundamental break with traditional reckoning to devise an efficient seasonal calendar.
In 46 BC., to bring the new calendar back into alignment with the seasons, required adding an additional 90 days to the year, which ever-after became known as the Year of Confusion. However, the Julian calendar of 45 B.C., even the Julian calendar of "christ's" day, did not look like the Julian calendar when Pope Gregory XIII modified it, and thus did not look like the Gregorian calendar of today. There was no Saturday (or Seventh-Day Sabbath at the end of the 'WEEK') on the original Julian calendar.
The Julian calendar, like the Roman calendar of the Republic before it, originally had an eight-day cycle. Every eighth day was a nundinae, or market day. The calendars were not constructed in grids as are modern calendars, but the dates were listed in columns. For example, January started with day "A" and would proceed on through the eight days of the 'WEEK' (A through H).
Unlike the Scriptural luni-solar calendar*, the Roman calendar had a continuous 'WEEKLY' cycle throughout the year, with a little adjustment at the end of the year.
*For a more in-depth study on the Scriptural Seventh-Day Sabbath, be sure to read this fascinating fact-based article: 'The Lunar Calendar Of The Scriptural Sabbath'.
Following is a reconstruction of the Fasti Antiates, a pre-Julian calendar dating from the 60s B.C. found at the site of Nero's villa in Antium. The letter A was painted red to indicate the start of the 'WEEK'.
A reconstruction of Fasti Antiates, the only
Roman Republic calendar still in existence.
There are thirteen columns. January, on the left, begins on day "A" and ends on day "E". At the bottom of each column are large Roman numerals giving the number of days in that month. The far right hand column is the 13th, intercalary month. Additional letters appear beside the 'WEEK-day' letters. These indicated what sort of business could or could not be conducted on that day. A "k" was painted beside the first day of every month. This stood for kalendae.
It is important to remember that the Biblical creation as an individual unit of time, as defined in Genesis 1, consisted of a total of seven days: six working days followed by a rest on the 'seventh-day'. By the time of 'christ', the eight-day cycle of the Julian calendar was still sporadically in use, as was the seven-day cycle. However, the Jews were still using the CREATOR's luni-solar based calendar for determining the true Scriptural Seventh-Day Sabbath. They were not yet keeping their Seventh-Day Sabbath based on any man-made calendar. This would have been idolatry to them. It wouldn't be until the 4th century AD, that the Jews would switch to a man-made calendar. For more on this topic, see: 'Constantine & Hillel Deceived The Whole World'.
An example of a Julian calendar dating from the time of Augustus (63 BC. - 14 AD.) to Tiberius (42 BC. - 37 AD.), is preserved on these stone fragments. The eight-day 'WEEK' is clearly discernible on them as seen here:
A Clear Example Of An 8-Day (A-H), Julian Calendar.
Re-Created From The Stone Calendar At Right.
(Click image to enlarge).
An example of a Julian 8-day stone calendar,
dating from the time of Augustus, proves the
continuous seven-day 'WEEKLY' cylce is false.
A later seven-day 'WEEK' Julian calendar, as seen in the following image of a stick calendar found at the Baths of Titus (constructed 79 - 81 A.D.), provides further proof that the Biblical Sabbath can never be found using the Julian calendar. The center circle contains the 12 signs of the zodiac, corresponding to the 12 months of the year. The Roman numerals to the left and right indicate the days of the month. Across the top of the stick calendar appear the seven planetary 'gods' of the pagan Romans.
This stick calendar from the Baths of Titus, (circa 79 - 81 C.E.) shows 'Saturn' holding his sickle, as 'god' of the first day of the 'WEEK' (Saturday). The sun 'god' is next (Sunday), followed by the moon 'goddess' (Monday) on the third day of the 'WEEK'.
Saturday (or dies Saturni - the day of Saturn) was the very first day of the 'WEEK', not the seventh. As the 'god' of agriculture, he can be seen in this preeminent position of importance, holding his symbol, a sickle. Next, on the second day of the pagan planetary 'WEEK', is seen the sun 'god' with rays of light emanating from his head. The second day of the 'WEEK' was originally dies Solis (the day of the Sun - Sunday). The third day of the 'WEEK' shows the moon 'goddess', with the horned crescent moon as a diadem on her head. Her day was dies Lunae (day of the Moon - Monday). The rest of the days are represented by the other planetary 'gods', ending with dies Veneris (day of Venus, which in Northern European languages was changed to a Norse 'godess' and became Friga's day, or Friday.)
Because the entire world has used the Gregorian calendar for hundreds of years, it is a frequently overlooked fact that in former times, not only did various countries use differing calendars, but there were also regional differences within individual countries. Although the seven-day planetary 'WEEK' became popularized in Rome with the rise of the cult of Mithras, it did not become official until Constantine standardized the 'WEEK' at the Council of Nicaea.
In light of these facts, it is illogical to assume that the Gregorian Saturday is the Biblical Sabbath of Creation. It is true that the Julian calendar transitioned to the Gregorian calendar without any loss of days. However, it is also true that the Gregorian calendar, like the Julian calendar before it, is founded entirely upon a pagan system of calendation.
Christopher Clavius (1538-1612).
Jesuit astronomer, Christopher Clavius, confirmed that the Julian calendar is rooted in pure paganism and has no ties whatsoever to Biblical calendation. Clavius is world-renowned as the architect of the modern Gregorian calendar. Because the Julian calendar is just a little too long, by the 16th century, the vernal equinox was no longer falling on the date arbitrarily assigned to it in the third century: March 21. Pope Gregory XIII assigned Clavius the task of calendar reform to bring the spring equinox back to March 21.
In his book, Romani Calendarii A Gregorio XIII P.M. Restituti Explicato, Clavius reveals that when the Julian calendar was made the ecclesiastical calendar of the Church at the Council of Nicaea, the Church deliberately rejected Biblical calendation and instead adopted pagan calendation. Referring to the differing systems of calendation used for determining the Biblical Passover versus the pagan substitute of Easter, Clavius states: "The Catholic Church has never used that [Jewish] rite of celebrating the Passover, but always in its celebration has observed the motion of the moon and sun, and it was thus sanctified by the most ancient and most holy Pontiffs of Rome, but also confirmed by the first Council of Nicaea. "The "Pontiffs" he is referring to are the ancient priests of Roman paganism.
Modern Christians have assumed that the Gregorian Saturday is the Biblical Sabbath. However, Christians who lived at the time the Julian calendar was enforced by civil legislation had no doubts or confusion over the matter: the "Sabbath" was calculated by the Biblical luni-solar calendar; the "Lord's day" (Sunday) by the pagan solar calendar. As David Sidersky noted, "It was no more possible under Constance to apply the old calendar." Apostolic Christians, however, did not obey the new edict.
At every step in the course of the apostasy, at every step taken in adopting the forms of sun worship, and against the adoption and the observance of Sunday itself, there had been constant protest by all real Christians. Those who remained faithful to 'christ' and to the truth of the pure word of the ETERNAL observed the Sabbath of the [Master] according to the commandment, and according to the word of the ETERNAL which sets forth the Sabbath as the sign by which the ETERNAL, the Creator of the heavens and the earth, is distinguished from all other [deities]. These accordingly protested against every phase and form of sun worship. Others compromised, especially in the East, by observing both Sabbath and Sunday. But in the west under Roman influences and under the leadership of the church and the bishopric of Rome, Sunday alone was adopted and observed.
The Council of Nicaea (A.D. 321-324) outlawed the Biblical luni-solar calendar for ecclesiastical use, and supplanted the Julian calendar in its place, commanding that people everywhere "venerate" the day of the Sun. Some began to compromise. While many Christians clung to keeping the original Sabbath by the luni-solar calendar, others, with the rabbinical Jews, kept the seventh day of the Julian calendar: Saturday. Still others kept Saturday as well as Sunday. This did not satisfy the Church at Rome. She wanted everyone worshipping exclusively on Sunday. When the Edict of Milan [and HERE] did not have the desired effect on the people, the Council of Laodicea was convened approximately 40 years later to enforce the acceptance of "the Lord's Day" in place of the Biblical, lunar Seventh-Day Sabbath.
In order therefore, to bring about the accomplishment of her original purpose, it now became necessary for the church to secure legislation extinguishing all exemption, and prohibiting the observance of the Seventh-Day Sabbath, so as to quench that powerful protest [against worship on Sunday]. And now, the "truly divine command" of Constantine and the Council of Nicaea that "nothing" should be held "in common with the Jews," was made the basis and the authority for legislation, utterly to crush out the observance of the Seventh-Day Sabbath, and to establish the observance of Sunday only, in its stead.
Canon 29 of the Synod of Laodicea demanded: "Christians shall not Judaize and be idle on Saturday, but shall work on that day; but the "lord's" day they shall especially honor, and, as being Christians, shall, if possible, do no work on that day. If however, they are found Judaizing, they shall be shut out from 'christ'".
There it is, absolute 'proof positive', in black and white and 'in their own words', that the church of Rome, by the direct edict of Constantine at their behest, outlawed once and for all, and forevermore, all observance of the fourth commandment:
(Exodus 20:8-11)[Note: a&b] (NKJV) 8Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. 9Six days you shall labor and do all your work, 10but the seventh day is the Sabbath of the ETERNAL your CREATOR. In it you shall do no work: you, nor your son, nor your daughter, nor your male servant, nor your female servant, nor your cattle, nor your stranger who is within your gates. 11For in six days the CREATOR made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested the seventh day. Therefore the CREATOR blessed the Sabbath day and hallowed it.
In it's place they decreed that everyone will observe a counterfeit "lord's day", as created by them at the Council of Nicaea, in their equally counterfeit [New Testament]™ book of deception. There is only one book of Divine Holy Scripture, the Hebrew Scriptures [or Old Testament as they now call it], which begins with Genesis and ends with Malachi. The satanically inspired unholy book of lies and deception called the [New Testament]™, is a wholy man-made work of fiction.
It is important to know that the word "Saturday" has been supplied in the English translation. According to Catholic bishop, Karl J. von Hefele's History of the Councils of the Church from the Original Documents, the word used was actually 'Sabbath' in both the Greek and the Latin and the word "anathema" (accursed) in place of "shut out". The Latin version clearly does not contain any reference to dies Saturni (Saturday) but instead uses 'Sabbato', or "Sabbath":
Quod non oportet Christianos Judaizere et otiare in 'Sabbato', sed operari in eodem die. Preferentes autem in veneratione Dominicum diem si vacre voluerint, ut Christiani hoc faciat; quod si reperti fuerint Judaizere Anathema sint a Christo.
Only in recent years, as the facts of history have been forgotten, has Saturday been assumed to be the Biblical Sabbath. When the Julian calendar was being enforced upon Christians for ecclesiastical use, no one at the time confused dies Saturni with Sabbato. Everyone knew that they were two different days by two distinct calendar systems.
A few days before His death, according to the Council of Nicaea's fabricated [New Testament]™ book of lies, 'christ' made a profound statement that should be considered in the context of the controversy over true versus counterfeit calendars. He said, "Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's; and unto the ETERNAL the things that are the ETERNAL's". The church, at the Council of Nicaea, was here establishing an important principle that was to govern every area of life. Pay homage to Caesar in all things he asks, but you must worship only the false deiety 'christ', on the equally false "lord's day".
An ancient proverb states: "He who controls the calendar, controls the world". Who controls you? The day on which you worship, calculated by the calendar you use, reveals which Deity/deity is in control of your life. Worshiping on the true Scriptural Sabbath, based on the luni-solar calendar of creation, is a sign of loyalty to the Creator. Only the Creator, the One in control of His luni-solar calendar based upon the sun, moon and stars, has the right to tell His people when to worship and, by virtue of that right, to receive that worship as He so designates.
[NOTE] [a]All scriptural links point to the Bible Gateway, A Searchable Online Bible In Over 100 Versions And 50 Languages, located at "BibleGateway.Com", a vast biblical resource containing all the major texts and reference materials useful for in-depth bible studies. Most scriptual quotations are from the (KJV) of the Bible, however versions noted in (parentheses) should also be consulted. [b]All Strong's scriptural references point to the Blue Letter Bible Lexicon, located at "BlueLetterBible.Org", another vast biblical resource which has over 4,000,000 links available, pointing to more than 165,000 pages of concordances, lexicons, dictionaries, commentaries, images, and several Bible versions.
 Julius Caesar had been elected Pontifex Maximus in 63 B.C. (James Evans, "Calendars and Time Reckoning," The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy, Oxford University Press, 1998, p. 165.)
 "Pontifex Maximus" is now a title reserved exclusively for the pope. This is very appropriate as the Gregorian calendar now in use is both pagan and papal, being founded upon the pagan Julian calendar and modified by, and named after, a pope.
 "The Julian Calendar", Encyclopedia Britannica.
 Ibid., emphasis supplied.
 Palazzo Massimo Alle Terme, ed. Adriano La Regina, 1998.
 "Calendar," Encyclopedia Britannica online.
 Caesar Augustus, first Roman Emperor, is mentioned in the Bible. His levy of a tax led Mary and Joseph to Bethlehem in time for the birth of 'christ'. See Luke 2:1.
 Tiberius succeeded Augustus as emperor in 14 A.D., retiring in 35 A.D. (Historic Figures, www.BBC.co.uk/history.)
 The seven-day planetary 'WEEK' was adopted into the pagan Roman calendar with the rise of the cult of Mithras. (See Sunday in Roman Paganism, by R. L. Odom, Review & Herald Publ. Assoc., 1945.) The planetary 'gods' thus became a permanent part of Julian calendation and pagan Roman culture.
 For further information on the original planetary 'WEEK' governed by the seven planetary 'gods', see How Did Sunday Get It's Name?, by R. L. Odom, at www.4angelspublications.com/books.php. Copyright, 1972, by Southern Publishing Assoc., used by permission.
 J. Bosworth and T. N. Toller, Frig-daeg, An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, 1898, p.337, made available by the Germanic Lexicon Project. See also "Friday" in Webster's New Universal Unabridged Dictionary, 2nd edition, 1983.
 See R. L. Odom's "The Planetary 'WEEK' in the First Century A.D.", Sunday Sacredness in Roman Paganism, Review and Herald Publish Assoc., 1944.
 "When Gregory XIII reformed the calendar, the adjustment was made such that the vernal equinox should occupy the position assigned to it in the Easter tables, viz. March 21. These tables date from about the third century. The important point is that this adjustment placed the vernal equinox on a date that is purely arbitrary and not necessarily related to the date on which the equinox fell when the revision of the calendar by Julius Caesar was made." (Letter from Dr. H. Spencer-Jones, Astronomer Royal, Royal Observatory, Greenwich, London, to Grace Amadon, dated Dec. 28, 1938, Collection 154, Box 1, Folder 4, Center for Adventist Research, Andrews University, emphasis supplied.
 Christopher Clavius, Romani Calendarii A Gregorio XIII P.M. Restituti Explicato, p. 54, as quoted in "Report of Committee on Historical Basis, Involvement, and Validity of the October 22, 1844, Position", Part V, Sec. B, p. 18, Collection 154, Center for Adventist Research, Andrews University.
 Astronomical Origin of Jewish Chronology, Paris, 1913, p. 651.
 A. T. Jones, The Two Republics, A. B. Publishing, Inc., 1891, p. 320-321.
 Venerate: "to look upon with deep respect and reverence; to regard as hallowed." Webster's New Universal Unabridged Dictionary, 2nd edition, 1983.
 "Constantine, Emperor Augustus, to Helpidius: On the venerable day of the sun let the magistrates and people residing in cities rest, and let all worships be closed. In the country, however, persons engaged in agriculture may freely and lawfully continue their pursuits; because it often happens that another day is not so suitable for grain-sowing or for vine-planting; lest by neglecting the proper moment for such operations, the bounty of heaven should be lost." P. Schaff's translation, History of the Christian Church, Vol. III, p. 75.
 A. T. Jones, The Two Republics, A. B. Publishing, Inc., 1891, p. 321, emphasis supplied.
 Karl Josef von Hefele (1809-1893), is a credible authority on the original word choice used at the Council of Nicaea. A German scholar, theologian and professor of Church history, educated at T?bingen University, and later bishop of Rottenburg, he had access to the Vatican archives and original documents.
 See Matthew 22:20-21.